code

CSS syntax

A CSS rule set contains a selector and a declaration block.

CSS syntax

The selector points to the HTML element you want to style.

The declaration block contains one or more declarations separated by semicolons.

Each declaration includes a CSS property name and a value, separated by a colon.

A CSS declaration always ends with a semicolon, and declaration blocks are surrounded by curly braces.

In the following example all <p> elements will be center-aligned, with a red text color:

p {
  color: red;
  text-align: center;
}

CSS Selectors

Selector: Selector indicates the HTML element you want to style. It could be any tag like <h1>, <title> etc.

The id Selector

The id selector uses the id attribute of an HTML element to select a specific element.

The id of an element should be unique within a page, so the id selector is used to select one unique element!

To select an element with a specific id, write a hash (#) character, followed by the id of the element.

The style rule below will be applied to the HTML element with id=”para1″:

#para1 {
  text-align: center;
  color: red;
}

The class Selector

The class selector selects elements with a specific class attribute.

To select elements with a specific class, write a period (.) character, followed by the name of the class.

In the example below, all HTML elements with class=”center” will be red and center-aligned:

.center {
  text-align: center;
  color: red;
}

You can also specify that only specific HTML elements should be affected by a class.

In the example below, only <p> elements with class=”center” will be center-aligned:

p.center {
  text-align: center;
  color: red;
}

HTML elements can also refer to more than one class.

In the example below, the <p> element will be styled according to class=”center” and to class=”large”:

<p class="center large">This paragraph refers to two classes.</p>
 Note: A class name cannot start with a number!  

Grouping Selectors

h1 {
  text-align: center;
  color: red;
}

h2 {
  text-align: center;
  color: red;
}

p {
  text-align: center;
  color: red;
}

It will be better to group the selectors, to minimize the code.

To group selectors, separate each selector with a comma.

In the example below we have grouped the selectors from the code above:

h1, h2, p {
  text-align: center;
  color: red;
}

CSS Comments

Comments are used to explain the code, and may help when you edit the source code at a later date.

Comments are ignored by browsers.

A CSS comment starts with /* and ends with */. Comments can also span multiple lines:

p {
  color: red;
  /* This is a single-line comment */
  text-align: center;
}

/* This is
a multi-line
comment */

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